Subquantum Kinetics Predictions
and their Subsequent Verification
Nucleon Core Field - prevailing concept (1978): The electric field in the core of a nucleon is assumed to be aperiodic and to rise to a sharp cusp at the particle's center.
Verification (2002): Particle scattering form factor data for the proton and neutron is found to be best fit by a model in which the nucleon core electric charge density distribution has characteristics similar to those that subquantum kinetics had predicted. Energy boosting during collision, however, did cause the target nucleons to exhibit a wavelength slightly shorter than had been predicted.
Energy Conservation and Photon Redshifting - prevailing concept (1978): At the time of this prediction, physicists and astronomers generally assume that photon energy is perfectly conserved and that the cosmological redshift is an effect arising from an assumed expansion of space.
Verification (1979 - 1986): Dr. LaViolette checks this photon redshifting prediction by comparing the tired-light non-expanding universe model and the expanding universe model (standard Freidman cosmology) to observational data on four different cosmology tests. He demonstrates that the tired-light model consistently makes a closer fit to observational data on all tests. His findings, which were published in the Astrophysical Journal (1986), confirm the subquantum kinetics tired light prediction and the notion that the universe is cosmologically stationary. These findings undermine a key support of the big bang theory. An update of this evidence is presented in Chapter 7 of Subquantum Kinetics.
Energy Conservation and Energy Generation - prevailing concept (1978): At the time of this prediction, physicists and astronomers adhered to the idea that energy is perfectly conserved. Stars are assumed to generate their energy either through nuclear fusion or from heat released from gravitational accretion. Planets are instead thought to acquire their luminosity from stored heat. There is no reason to believe that planets should conform to the stellar mass-luminosity relation.
Verification (1979 - 1992): Dr. LaViolette tested this genic energy prediction by plotting the mass-luminosity coordinates of the jovian planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus) to compare them with the mass-luminosity relation for red dwarf stars and found that both planets and stars conformed to the same relation. Other astronomers had not previously done this because doing so didn't make sense in the context of the conventional astrophysical paradigm. This conformance suggests that the heat coming from the interiors of planets is produced in the same way as that radiating from the interiors of red dwarf stars, just as subquantum kinetics predicts. He also showed that the genic energy hypothesis predicts a slope for the "planetary stellar M-L relation" similar to the observed slope. In addition, he showed that the upward extension of the M-L relation predicts that about 16% of the Sun's luminosity should be of genic energy origin, an amount consistent with recent SNO solar neutrino measurements. The required violation of energy conservation is 10 orders of magnitude smaller than what could be observed in laboratory experiments.
Verification (January 1995): Astronomers observing with the Hubble Space Telescope discovered that the star VB10 has a dynamic core, as indicated by the presence of explosive, magnetic-field-driven flares on its surface. VB10 has a mass of about 0.09 solar masses, which indicates that it borders between being a red dwarf and brown dwarf. Conventional theory predicts that this star should be on the border of being dead and hence should not have a strong magnetic field. Subquantum kinetics, which predicts that its interior should be dynamic and actively evolving genic energy, anticipates these results.
Brown Dwarf Stars - prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, astronomers do not expect that brown dwarf stars to have any particular mass-luminosity ratio. They are assumed to be stars that are not massive enough to ignite nuclear fusion and hence are merely dead stars that are cooling off.
Verification (November 1995, 1998): Astronomers determine the masses and luminosities of two brown dwarfs GL 229B and G 196-3B. Dr. LaViolette demonstrates that the M-L data points for these brown dwarfs lies along the planetary-stellar M-L relation as he predicted. This indicates that brown dwarfs are not dead stars as previously supposed, but stars that are actively producing genic energy in their interiors.
Interplanetary maser signals - prevailing concept (1985): Maser signals are believed to maintain constant frequencies over interplanetary distances since photon energy is assumed to be perfectly conserved.
Verification (October 1998): A group of scientists at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) publish their discovery that maser signals transponded between the Earth and the Pioneer spacecraft blueshift at a rate of ~ 2.9 ± 0.4 X 10-18 per second. Their value reduces to 2.3 ± 0.4 X 10-18 per second when the propulsive effects of waste heat from the spacecraft power source is taken into account. The predicted blueshift rate is within 2 sigma of the observed rate. LaViolette had discussed his prediction with one member of the JPL group as early as 1980. Although, the JPL team had apparently forgotten about the conversation and chose their own a posteriori interpretation of the phenomenon, conceiving the blueshift to be produced by a mysterious force continually pushing the spacecraft toward the Sun. Their observations nevertheless provide close confirmation of the a priori subquantum kinetics prediction; see paper posted at pioneer.html. A chronology of events of the Pioneer effect prediction and subsequent JPL verification is graphically depicted below. For a detailed discussion see the Pioneer effect press release
Galactic Evolution - prevailing concept (1979): At the time of this prediction, astronomers believed that galaxies form in various sizes as galactic-sized gas clouds gravitationally condense to form stars. They assume that the size of these galaxies does not change over time except through galaxy mergers. Galaxies in the immediate neighborhood of the Milky Way are assumed to have the same size ratio as young galaxies at cosmological distances.
Verification (July 1995): Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope show that younger, more distant galaxy clusters are dominated by fainter, more compact galaxies and have much fewer of the larger spiral galaxies, as compared with nearby older galaxy clusters.
Galactic Core Energy Source - prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, the nuclei of active galaxies and quasars are known to contain central masses ranging from millions to billions of solar masses, and astronomers assume that these core masses exist in a collapsed state as black holes. They further assume that the prodigious energy output from these cores is powered from matter being swallowed by these hypothesized black holes. No other means of generating energy is known to explain the immense amount of energy observed to come from these locations.
Verification (January 1995): A group of astronomers led by John Bahcall, observing with the Hubble Space Telescope, discover that 11 out of 15 quasars are devoid of any surrounding material and hence have no matter available to power a black hole hypothetically located at their centers. This supports the subquantum kinetics prediction that such energetic sources are instead powered by energy spontaneously created in their interiors.
Verification (September 1997): Hubble Space Telescope observations of the heart of active galaxy NGC 6251 provide further confirmation of the earlier January 1995 verification. These observations show that this galaxy's core is swept clear and hence that there should be no matter available to be accreted by a hypothetical central black hole.
Supernova Precursor Stars - prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, astronomers believe that supernova are produced by red giant stars which have exhausted their supply of nuclear fuel. They presume that the once the red giant's nuclear reactions subside, it collapses and subsequently rebounds in a supernova explosion.
Verification (1987): Supernova 1987A explodes in the Large Magellenic Cloud. This is the closest supernova observed in the history of modern astronomy. Astronomers locate its precursor star on old photographic plates and determine for the first time what sort of star produced this explosion. Surprisingly, they find that it had been a blue supergiant star, just as subquantum kinetics had predicted.
Galactic Core Energy Source - prevailing concept (1985): At the time of this prediction, astronomers had not imaged stars in the vicinity of the Galactic center since the observational techniques had not yet been developed. Based on their conventional theories, they expected that most stars in the vicinity of the Galactic center should be low mass stars, which they theorized should be very old stars, at least as old the the Galaxy, e.g., billions of years.
Verification (1995): A group of astronomers (Krabbe et al.) publish observations of the Galactic center stellar cluster which indicate that the region within 1-1/2 light-years of the Galactic center is populated with about two dozen luminous helium-rich blue supergiants having masses of up to 100 solar masses. This finding confirms the subquantum kinetics prediction. Unaware of the subquantum kinetics prediction, they have difficulty in accounting for this finding. They speculate that these are young stars which must have formed between 3 and 7 million years ago from gas residing in this region. But they are unable to explain how this would occur since the large tidal shear in this region should have disrupted such a star formation process.
Verification (2003): UCLA astronomer Andrea Ghez reports on observations she has made of the Galactic center using infrared speckle interferometry and adaptive optics. She was able to plot the trajectories of these stars. Based on these observations, she confirms that the stars in the immediate vicinity of the Galactic center, within 0.01 light years, are very massive, but that they have spectra typical of "young" stars (young by the conventional definition). She finds this puzzling since the tidal forces in the vicinity of the Galactic center would be much too strong to allow stars to form through a gravitational accretion process, this being especially true of the eight stars found closest to the Galactic center. She suggests that these massive stars may in fact be old stars whose proximity to the Galactic center has altered their appearance to make them masquerade as young stars. However, she is unable to offer any mechanism by which this could happen. Here we find her coming close to the subquantum kinetics prediction that these stars near the Galactic center should be very massive. However, by following conventional theory, she must resort to proposing mysterious stellar masquerading effects since conventional theory erroneously interprets massive stars to be young stars, instead of old stars. But with subquantum kinetics these massive stars appear exactly as they should, namely as blue supergiants which in this paradigm are very old stars.
Gravitational Repulsion - prevailing concept (1985): Electrons are assumed to produce matter-attracting fields just like protons. Gravitational repulsion is considered a speculative idea. Gravity waves are theorized to produce transverse forces on masses, not longitudinal forces.
Verification (2001): Drs. Evgeny Podkletnov and Giovanni Modanese discover that an axial high-voltage electron discharge produces a matter-repelling gravity wave that travels in the direction of the discharge exerting a longitudinal repulsive gravitational force on a distant test mass.
Gravity wave and Coulomb wave speed and gravity wave force (2003): At the time of this prediction, most physicists and astronomers believed that gravity waves and Coulomb waves should always travel at the speed of light. They also concurred that the force exerted by such waves should scale in proportion to the field gradient.
Verification (2005 - 2006): LaViolette worked with research scientist Guy Obolensky to test this prediction with respect to the speed of electric potential waves. Earlier Obolensky had reported that he had measured the speed of electric shock fronts (Coulomb waves) propagating away from a Dome antenna and found that they traveled at a superluminal speed. Based on prediction 12, LaViolette theorized that since the shock front expanded radially outward from its emitting dome antenna, its electric field gradient should decrease inversely with increasing distance from the dome and that the superluminal speed of these shocks should correspondingly decrease inversely with distance from the dome. This prediction was confirmed. They made measurements of the time of flight of the shock pulse to six locations of progressively greater distance from the dome and found that the excess velocity of the shock (v - c) declined inversely with distance just as had been predicted. This experiment is summarized in chapter 6 of the book Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion by Paul LaViolette. It should be mentioned that Tesla also reported that the speed of his pulses began at a near infinite speed at the dome of his antenna and progressively declined toward c as they traveled further away.
Verification (2008): The prediction with respect to the force exerted by the gravity potential component of such waves was verified qualitatively. Paul LaViolette contacted Dr. Eugene Podkletnov and inquired about the performance of his gravity impulse beam generator. Previously Drs. Podkletnov and Modanese had reported in a published paper that the impulse beam was able to deflect a test mass up to 14 centimeters when 2 million volts were discharged through the generator's superconducting cathode disc (Podkletnov and Modanese, 2002). Podkletnov had subsequently told LaViolette that the beam was able to punch 4 inch holes through concrete blocks when 10 million volt pulses were discharged through the disk. In January 2008, LaViolette asked Podkletnov if his team used a different electric pulse generator to produce the gravity pulses that punched holes through concrete blocks as compared with the ones that produced the 14 centimeter pendulum deflections and whether the former used a different Marx capacitor bank that was able to create a pulse with a steeper gradient. Dr. Podkletnov concurred that was indeed the case, the concrete smashing pulses were created with an electric discharge that had a much more rapid voltage rise-time.
Verification (2008): The prediction with respect to the superluminal speed of gravity potential component of such waves was verified qualitatively. Previously, Dr. Podkletnov had told LaViolette that he and Dr. Modanese had measured the speed of the pulses to be between 63 and 64 times the speed of light. In January of 2008, LaViolette asked Podkletnov whether the concrete smashing pulses produced by the steeper electric field gradients traveled much faster than the pendulum deflecting pulses. Podkletnov concurred and said that they had determined that these stronger pulses traveled at least several thousand times the speed of light.