Gravity well surrounding the Galactic core


    The luminous cosmic ray emitting source at the center of our Galaxy is a celestial orb that is about 3.6 million times the mass of our Sun and the most massive object in our Galaxy.  Currently it is seen to radiate about 20 million times as much electromagnetic energy as our Sun.  Based on early radio observations, it was given the designation Sagittarius A*.  The gravity potential field around this Galactic core decreases inversely with increasing radial distance (Gp ~ 1/r), as shown above.  Stars orbit this body with velocities as high as 50% of the speed of light.  Gas and dust also orbits Sgr A* but does not fall toward it.  It is instead seen to be moving radially outward from this source.  After long intervals, the matter/energy generation process within the Sagittarius A* becomes unstable and it explodes with intense luminosity.  Such galactic core explosions pose a potential threat to our planet.


Stars orbiting the Galactic center 4 million solar mass Mother Star

   In the physics of subquantum kinetics the Galactic core is referred to as the Galaxy's mother star.  According to subquantum kinetics, it does not exist in the form of a point singularity, but as a very dense supermassive star having a density similar to a neutron star or hyperon star.  This conclusion is supported by the following observations and verifications:

The electric field potential in the core of a subatomic particle does not rise to a point at its center, but rather plateau's to a Gaussian distribution; see Prediction Verification No. 1 and (LaViolette, 2008).  Since electric and gravity fields are coupled, we may infer that the same radial distribution exists for the particle's core gravity field.  Hence as the distance between nucleons decreases, their gravitational attractive forces approach zero and the formation of a singularity is prevented.
Subquantum kinetics predicts that a mother star's mass is prevented from collapse by the intense outpouring of genic energy that is continually created in its interior.  This is energy that is spontaneously created through photon blueshifting.  To learn more about evidence for the existence of genic energy, see Prediction Verification No. 4, 5, and 6,  LaViolette, 1992, and  Pioneer effect prediction.
While relativistic effects emerge as corollaries from subquantum kinetics, subquantum kinetics postulates that the geometry of space is Euclidean and unaffected by gravitational mass.  This conclusion is supported by observations of the distribution of galaxies in space over cosmological distances; see (LaViolette, 1986).  Black hole theory is instead founded on the general relativistic concept of space-time warping.  To see a critique of the spatial warping concept, see the paper by Björn Overbye.
Attempts by a Cornell university group to computer simulate the collapse of an ellipsoidal stellar mass predicted the formation of a spindle singularity outputing infinite amounts of energy and resulting in the complete destruction of the physical universe.  Since the universe is still here, we must conclude that collapses into black holes do not occur in Nature.

    Unlike a conventional black hole, a mother star does not need to swallow matter in order to generate its enormous energy eflux.  Rather, both energy and matter are spontaneously created within its depths and the ensuing outward energy flux prevents the star's mass from unrestrained collapse (see above).  For evidence that galactic cores are not powered by dust/gas accretion and that galaxies continuously grow in size through matter creation and expulsion from their centers, see Prediction Verification No. 7, 8, and 10.  Regarding concerns of First Law violation, see below.
     Given that it has a mass of 3.6 million solar masses, Sgr A* would have a Schwarzchild radius measuring about 11 million kilometers, or about 15 times the radius of our Sun.  If the mother star had an average density of at least one ton per cubic centimeter, similar to the density of a white dwarf star, its diameter would be about the same as our Sun, which would place its surface well within its Schwarzchild radius.  Within this critical radius, light rays traveling tangent to the surface of the mother star would be trapped in closed orbits to form a photon shell.  However, contrary to standard black hole theory, cosmic rays and electromagnetic radiation would be able to freely radiate outward from the mother star.  Whereas general relativity teaches that light rays originating within the Schwarzchild radius would be unable to escape to the outside world, subquantum kinetics does allow light rays to escape provided that they are not traveling parallel to the star's surface. Since most light rays would be traveling either perpendicular or at a steep angle to the surface, according to subquantum kinetics, most should be able to escape.  
    In subquantum kinetics, the velocity of light decreases with increasingly negative values of gravity potential. So, light rays originating from the surface of a mother star would initially be traveling far slower than the free space velocity of light measured in the Earth's vicinity.  As they proceeded outward and emerged from the mother star's gravity well, their velocity would progressively increase toward our local value and this would correspondingly cause the wavelength of the photons to redshift, a phenomenon known as the gravitational redshift.  This is why emission line radiation coming from the surface of a white dwarf is seen to be redshifted.  The same phenomenon is seen in radiation emerging from the cores of active galaxies, something that is especially evident in the anomalously large redshifts of quasars.  This gravity-induced frequency shift effect has been observed near the Earth as an altitude dependent frequency shift effect, and is termed the Mosbauer effect.  This same gravitational velocity effect explains the gravitational lens effect where by a celestial mass causes grazing rays of star light to bend their trajectory.  The light rays refract because the star's gravity field creates a light velocity gradient across the photon, their speed being slower on the side nearest the star.  

The First Law of Thermodynamics
    The First Law of Thermodynamics (in its most narrow interpretation) states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, only interconverted from one preexisting physical form into another.  The inherent flaw of this interpretation is that it presumes that there is no substrate of existence underlying the quantumphysical level consisting of matter, energy and fields, i.e., it presumes there are no subquantum workings such as a transmuting ether.  Thus the conventional physics paradigm perceives the physical universe as a closed system devoid of inputs or outputs from some state "beyond" or outside of the physical universe.  
    Although the narrow interpretation of the First Law may work well for explaining the workings of refrigerator appliances, it fails miserably when applied to matter and energy creation phenomena we see taking place in the cosmos.  Here, very small departures from perfect energy conservation (far too small to measure in the laboratory) can produce very large scale effects such as supernovae or galactic core explosions.  Subquantum kinetics proposes that we adopt a broad interpretation of the First Law, one that admits to the existence of an active subquantum etheric realm whose activity continually generates and maintains the form of our physical universe.  The physical universe is no longer viewed as a closed system, but as an open system, whose very existence depends on the continued activity of the subquantum realm.  The First Law, then, might be more broadly reframed as stating that the total system (quantum plus subquantum) is conservative, but that when only considering part of the total, namely physical entities such as matter and energy, this observable subset may at times function nonconservatively.
    By realizing that there exists an underlying ether and that this ether functions as an open system, we may resolve the mystery of where the energy comes from that powers galactic core explosions.  Like all open systems, the transmuting ether is able under certain circumstances to spontaneously generate order (matter and energy). To learn more about this cosmogenic paradigm read the books Genesis of the Cosmos and Subquantum Kinetics.